As a guest speaker at the Quixtar LIVE! conference in 2003, Phil McGraw ("Dr. Phil") reportedly described Quixtar as "one of the greatest success stories in American business history." In a 2006 settlement involving a class-action lawsuit brought against McGraw and his Shape-Up diet products, plaintiffs received a share of $6.0 million in Quixtar-brand Nutrilite vitamins and $4.5 million in cash.
I think there's a ton of misinformation on both parts. Yes, most people who jump into the business don't understand what they need to do to make their business successful. Then again, as mentioned above, MLM is a highly outdated model, pretty much just a good way to waste time when you could be using that time to retrain or pursue your passions. After all, what's the point in selling overpriced, under-quality product, and how can you expect to sell if you wouldn't buy it yourself?? I feel as though this system of marketing will die out fairly soon. Great post.
Amway was forced by the FTC to admit publicly that the average profit for their members was roughly $1400 a year. Also Amway makes more profit charging their “independent business owners” fees for “training” than they do for their actual products. You’ll notice Ambots spewing the same recycled script over and over whenever you challenge them. They also lie about their success rates . It’s called “fake it til you make it”. Every person I’ve ever know in Amway comes off as incredibly sleazy. Oh, and by the way? “Looser” means “less tight”. A “loser” is someone who loses. Like most Amway members.
With AWS Just-in-Time Registration, users are assured their Amway device will talk only to Amway’s AWS IoT platform—not to a different IoT platform or a hacked version that sits in between. For Amway, Just-in-Time Registration ensures a given device truly is an Amway manufactured device, and not a fake. For Amway’s devices, Just-in-Time Registration is handled by the Atmel microprocessor within each unit. “Valid certificates for our air-treatment systems are actually created before they even leave the factory floor,” says Binger.
Amway has become one of the most reliable options for me and my family. I buy there because they offer quality products and they are very durable, such as detergents and cleaning products. They offer good products and their customer service is very good, the person who sells me directly is very kind. Whenever I buy in Amway I do it with the distributor directly because the products are cheaper there, but from time to time I look for my reseller and I request products.
These businesses sell the hope of getting rich by recruiting recruiters to sell overpriced products that don't move in real markets. The products of any MLM have to be extremely cheap to manufacture and must retail at inflated, unrealistic prices because in effect, the products are simply used to move money into the pyramid scheme. Just remember that there are several hundred MLMs in existence in 2014 and all of them are scams.
In 2001, after the majority of Amway Independent Business Owners (IBOs) had transferred to the new company, Quixtar completely replaced Amway as the marketing venture for Amway/Alticor products in North American regions. The Quixtar business model differs from the earlier Amway business model in many aspects, such as the way distribution is performed as well as the products and services offered through partner stores. Rather than ordering product from a distributor who delivers them in person, Quixtar customers can place orders online and have the products shipped to them directly. In mid-2007 however, Quixtar announced they were phasing back in the Amway name over two years and discarding the Quixtar name. Along with the re-branding campaign, Amway Global is investing over 580 million dollars into both increased compensation for IBOs and for extensive advertising of the new brand name.
Amway is unethical way of making money. Their representative lure you to this smartly designed plan. Amway’s representatives misguide and misinform like any other business or a product’s sale representatives. which is attractive to listen for the first time with the ‘Entrepreneur” motto. But it is another way of making money leaving you frustrated in the end. I advise every one not to join this unethical product promotion. I appreciate Jeremy’s article for giving information to people.
I could not agree more that Amway will take over your life and it will also help you lose boyfriends too. My daughter is going to be. Senior in high school along with her ex-boyfriend. His parents have started this and now they brainwashed him into it. His mom talked to my daughter about supporting him and he did too. She stood firm in her answer of "no". Unfortunately it cost her their relationship of 18 months because she would not support him. Well buddy, good luck finding bother girlfriend as her because you are never getting her back! So sad that he valued Amway over their relationship. I absolutely can't wait to watch his parents fail along with him, I hope A,way sucks them beyond dry.
It may come as a surprise to Jessica and Richard, but 50% of all people are below average. IBOs are successful only if they exploit those that are feeble minded enough to buy Amway's crappy products: i.e cleaning products loaded up with salt. No ethical person would consider doing this. If the average IBO income is only about $200 and the median a lot less ~$30, then the scam is obvious! Perhaps Richard and Jessica always load up on Lotto tickets because the potential return is huge. Richard loves to focus on the good stuff and gets blinded by the false hope. Don't be a sucker, MLM is a scam.
Totally a scam...only a way to fetch money frm d people.. .people cant affors its products are so highly priced....bt den also...in logo ko kya...inhe to bs apna maal bechna h ...frr chahe insan apna ghar hi q na bech de...phle saamaan lene ko membership lene ko piche pde rhte h...fr use maintain krne ko...khud ko to koi kaam h nii...n jinhe kaam h wo inke chakkar me na kr pae...saale khud to sukoon ki jindgi jee re ho na...to dusro ko b to jeene do....
I cannot believe the rubbish you have been writing about Amway. One of the most successful companies in the world, bigger than VISA, Hilton Group, Estée Lauder. They have been going over 50 years and are all over the world. I have never once been told I am part of “the family”. If people aren’t interested, so be it. Don’t bad mouth something you know very little about. I suppose you’re happy to buy from companies like Amazon or Starbucks, two huge companies who have recently been part of a British Government enquiry because they had wangled their way out of paying billions in taxes here in England. Think about that next time you order a coffee or buy a book!!
In April 1997 Richard DeVos and his wife, Helen, gave $1 million to the Republican National Committee (RNC), which at the time was the second-largest soft-money donation ever, behind Amway's 1994 gift of $2.5 million to the RNC. In July 1997, Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott and House Speaker Newt Gingrich slipped a last-minute provision into a hotly contested compromise tax bill that granted Amway and four other companies a tax break on their Asian branches that totaled $19 million.
Proof of the company's overwhelming manipulation isn't hard to come by. All over YouTube you can find videos like this one where the intro song repeatedly claims these people have found a way to beat the recession and travel the world, with lyrics like, "Anyone with eyes can see we are successful" (we assume it flows better in its native language). If you sit through the song long enough you'll see Amway distributor Patrick Joe's epic introduction before he starts excitedly screaming and getting the audience to chant like he just found Jesus, or learned Rush finally made it into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame:
Nike and Apple have been partnered for 3 years. They don’t need to market and advertise that to create volume. That’s what we do. Also, amway is designed initially to be part time,no full time. I worked a full time job, while putting in time to build a business online. I don’t need to explain what we make now but it’s enough to make a living. Look up the BBB if you want to do “research”.
The next five days saw large protests on the Capitol grounds, culminating with an estimated 12,500 demonstrators on December 11, the day the House voted on the legislation. Two-thousand demonstrators flooded into the Capitol, sitting in the hallways and laying down in the rotunda. They stomped their feet, chanted familiar slogans, sang “Solidarity Forever”—a cacophony that some in the House chamber one story up initially confused for thunder.
Across those efforts, one constant is the DeVos family’s devout Christian beliefs, and the indivisibility they see between Christian and Calvinistic notions and their conservative politics. “The real strength of America is its religious tradition,” Richard DeVos wrote in Believe!. “Too many people today are willing to act as if God had nothing whatsoever to do with it. … This country was built on a religious heritage, and we’d better get back to it. We had better start telling people that faith in God is the real strength of America!” In the mid-1970s, DeVos made major donations to the Christian Freedom Foundation and Third Century Publishers, an outlet that printed books and pamphlets designed to strengthen the ties between Christianity and free-market conservatism; among those products was a guidebook instructing conservative Christians how to win elections and help America become “as it was when first founded—a ‘Christian Republic.’”
To conclude, an individual entering a legitimate MLM business at lower levels is likely to face losses and be unsuccessful at it. To that extent, even legitimate MLM businesses are similar to Ponzi schemes, where it is important to enter the scheme early. Also, like Ponzi schemes even legitimate MLM businesses project the prospect of unrealistically high returns while soliciting new distributors.
Amway is probably the most widely used of the "sell our products out of the comfort of your own home and be your own boss!" services, the ones that appeal to the unemployed with promises they'll get rich quick (and also encourages them to relentlessly recruit new members). And on the surface it looks fairly plausible, especially when you look at how much money Amway rakes in every year: in 2014 Amway sold $10.8 billion worth of products, so why shouldn't you try to break off a piece of that action?
Rich and Jay set up shop in Rich’s basement selling Liquid Organic Cleaner, or L.O.C., Amway’s first original product. With their trust in each other and the support of their loving wives, they’re able to weather all bumps on their ride to the top, including the first federal investigation of Amway, by the Federal Trade Commission in 1975. In a chapter of his memoir titled ‘The Critics Weigh In’ (in Part Two, called ‘Selling America’), Rich says of the suit, ‘[We] considered the suit another government misunderstanding of business principles and an attack on free enterprise.’
Amway's product line grew from LOC, with the laundry detergent SA8 added in 1960, and later the hair care product Satinique (1965) and the cosmetics line Artistry (1968). Today Amway manufactures over 450 products, with manufacturing facilities in China, India and the United States, as well as Nutrilite organic farms in Brazil, Mexico and the United States (California and Washington State). Amway brands include Artistry, Atmosphere, Body Blends, Bodykey, Body Works, Clear Now, eSpring, Glister, iCook, Legacy of Clean, Nutrilite, Peter Island, Perfect Empowered Drinking Water, Personal Accents, Ribbon, Satinique, Artistry Men and XS.
A lot of people join (Amway.com) and other MLM business opportunities believing it will be easy and it’s their ticket to “get rich quick”, but the truth is it’s totally the opposite. Like any real business, you will have to work your butt off for a long period of time before you get results. Keep this in mind that Amway is a 2 to 3 year plan and you will have to follow that plan by prospecting, going to major functions (Home parties and larger events that take place) and by attending your team’s weekly meeting.
While this marketing strategies are great, and yes that does work at times, but the conversion rates are very low. And lets face it…is it working for you? No. Do you like chasing around or harrasing your friends, family, and even strangers to join your business or buy you Amway’s products? People who call your business an Amway Scam? No. Is it fun? HECK NO lol
It's not for nothing that you see 20% of the people in this world are leading 80%. Because 80% of people don't dare have a big dreams and overcome challenges. That's why they can live a great life, because they did something. So keep working for them and have an average salary and live your average life. Compare yourself to your boss. It's not for nothing that he is the only boss in his company leading 250 other people. It's just because he could vision himself bigger. Stay in the trap by yourself, who cares. It's your life. You can live it as awesome as you want or as miserable as you want. But there will still be dreamers out there who will lead you at the age of 65 when you can't retire because your retirement paycheck is too low. Because they will dare do something that you are not smart enough to take the risk to do. And enjoy your paycheck. They will enjoy their wonderful lifestyle. You will still have 15 vacation days to stay at home, they will take vacation whenever they want and travel all around the world. After all, if there was not people like you, your boss would not make any money. Wish you luck... I am an IBO and I LOVE AMWAY.
This said, according to Inter@ctive Week, "The commissions aren't all that great, even though they can add up to greater than 50 percent of the cost of the goods sold. If privately held Amway generated $6 billion in sales in 1998 as estimated, then each of its 1 million distributors would have pulled in, on average, only $6,000. It's nice extra income, but a livelihood only for the most talented, hardworking or aggressive. Or, for those with a large personal family tree.
For dinner before a game, there are a number of options at the arena. One thing to keep in mind is that Loge ticket holders are also entitled to dinner at Jernigan's Restaurant on the Club Level and have the exclusive option to reserve a table from 5:30 - 6:30 pm as premium ticket holders. Regardless of when you're going, reservations are recommended.
She showed me how all the dilution bottles worked (Amway liquid cleaners come in “superconcentrated” form, which makes them superinconvenient to use), and took me on a tour of eight or so catalogues, pointing out all the products I would want to make an effort to learn about. Finally, she did the best she could with the Amway paperwork, but, math teacher though she was, she got lost in its byzantine intricacies. “I’m still learning,” she explained with an embarrassed smile. “But it’s O.K., because once I get it all down, it’s all I’ll ever need to know, whether our business is a hundred dollars a month or a million!” Unfortunately, it was what I needed to know just to buy a roll of toilet paper.
Amway is a multibillion dollar company that uses “multilevel marketing techniques” to sell cosmetics and household products. They have really aggressive recruitment techniques and cult-like practices. They’re super shady and sued on a pretty regular basis, but still manage to trick new people into the fold! You can read more about the company here. If you want to hear more creepy personal stories about other people, like my friend’s roommate, who has been tricked into Amway, there are some good ones here and you can always Google “Amway is a cult”.
To get the full Amway experience, I started buying my groceries through The Business. I found that, despite Amway’s growth, its “cutting-edge” distribution system preserved all the pitfalls of a small buying club run out of somebody’s apartment. My local supermarket, ironically, actually did start as a buying club run out of someone’s apartment in the 1930s; as it grew, however, it accreted all the efficiencies of the retail system. Now it’s open fourteen hours a day, seven days a week, with professional managers, stockers, and checkers; a visit there is quick and hassle-free. To make my “pick-up” at Josh and Jean’s apartment, on the other hand, required an hour-long el ride and arrangements with a friend to haul the stuff back home, all scheduled only during those brief windows of opportunity when Josh and Jean could be there to meet me.
Amway: The True Story of the Company That Transformed the Lives of Millions reads like an extended advertisement. Its author, Wilbur Cross, became acquainted with Amway cofounders Rich DeVos and Jay Van Andel when they commissioned him to write the first ‘official’ history of the Amway Corporation, Commitment to Excellence, published in 1986. In Amway, Cross repeatedly references the work of Shad Helmstetter, PhD, a ‘motivational expert’ specializing in ‘programming’ yourself to change negative self-talk into positive self-talk. Negativity is expressly verboten in the world of Amway, as it breeds doubt – distributors are advised to get rid of any negative people in their downline as soon as possible if they can’t train them to be positive.
As its Sales & Marketing Plan demonstrated, there were two ways to make money in Amway. You could buy products cheap (at wholesale costs reportedly 30 percent below retail) and sell them dear; or, more lucratively, you could share The Business with others, and build your own empire of “downlines.” Since Amway awards bonuses to its distributors based on their wholesale volume, and since each distributor’s wholesale figures includes the sales made by his or her “downlines,” each convert to the Amway cause would enlarge his or her own incomes. To see how this worked, we were told to imagine recruiting six distributors, each of whom would bring in four more, who in turn would each net an additional two. Our downlines, according to this “6-4-2” formula, would then have seventy-eight members. If each of our underlings did $100 a month in sales, we’d be making an extra $2,000 a month in bonuses.
In 2001 a regional court ruled in favor of Network 21; however, in 2004 the Warsaw Regional Court dismissed Amway's civil lawsuit. On appeal Amway won the case and the producers were ordered to pay a fine to a children's charity and publish a public apology. As of 2009 the film was still banned due to an ongoing case brought by "private individuals" ridiculed in the film.
What do u think of Senegence? I was talked in to joining and have a ton of issues with the way the company operates. If I were told that purchasing product would be this stressful I would have never joined. They have sold me products they don't have! Kept my monney for a 2 months at a time and are out of stock on 99% of the items 99% of the time. When they release a Lipsense color the site freezes and by the time(meaning hours) you get in the the product you want is gone. Senegence doesn't put limits on the amount of products one distributor can buy. Growing your business should be the only stressful part of a company NOT GETTING PRODUCTS! at this point I feel as if I've been very mislead and any advice Your be greatly appreciated. Thank you
From time to time the absurdities and contradictions of The Business would surface in Josh’s conversation. In one of his many unguarded moments, he voiced a preference for Amway Scrub Rite because it ran out more quickly than the “superconcentrated” Amway cleaners, enabling him to buy it more often. Catching himself, he quickly added, “Of course, it still lasts a long time.” This puzzled me. Why was Josh so eager to shovel money at Amway? The rational thing would be to minimize his own purchases while strong-arming his downlines into buying as much as possible. But, of course, if everyone did that, the whole business would evaporate. This is Amway’s central dilemma.
Hello my name is Cliff Lindquist and I am a distributor for Sisel Kaffee & Sisel International. My response to Varsh is that unfortunately most of the products one can buy at the stores has all kinds of chemical and ingredients that are harmful to our body to the point of causing cancer and other ailments. At Sisel we have over 300 products to offer but they are NON toxic and safe to use. In addition we use a uni-level vs a binary marketing plan that benefits the distributors not the top 3% at the top being scamed on MLM distributors. Check us out on my Face Book site here; https://www.facebook.com/clifylq Sisel is the new improved non toxic Amway coming to America promoting a healthier, longer, profitable, and happier life. "If it's too good to be true, it's Sisel."
“The time is ripe for cultivating entrepreneurs, as evidenced by this year’s AGER results” said Jim Ayres, Managing Director, Amway North America. “Over the past five years, we have seen how age, education levels and gender influence attitudes towards entrepreneurship. Through this research, we realized the importance of understanding what motivates individuals to start their own businesses. This year’s AGER reveals a growing number of Americans continue to express a desire to start their own business. This desire is shared among the many independent business owners we work with year-round.”
Amway is working on rainbow system. Which have some target nd purchasing the product every mnth. So its nt gud for distributers.. Day by day Company profit is up.. Nd distributar is going down.. Mlm is very good nd simple business for those who has self confidence. Nd want to achive our dreams. Bt before joining mlm chek all the theams.. M also lyk mlm bt nt rainbow system. M like matrix system coz not any target nd nt any time limit.. Nd secndly purchasing is only one time in life time. So change ur life wd mlm busines .
One day, Sherri asked me to attend a meeting at which a “millionaire from the West Coast” was to talk about “business trends of the nineties.” I was not entirely caught by surprise—Sherri had dropped hints about starting her own “distribution business” at about the time that Amway Dish Drops appeared in the E2020 kitchen—and although she didn’t tell me the millionaire was from Amway, it wasn’t difficult to guess which version of the gospel of wealth he’d be preaching. I jumped at the chance to meet this mysterious man of money, although from totally insincere motives—the old anthro major in me was hankering for a bona fide subculture to gawk at.
Thanks to the DeVoses, Michigan’s charter schools enjoy a virtually unregulated existence. Thanks to them, too, the center of the American automotive industry and birthplace of the modern labor movement is now a right-to-work state. They’ve funded campaigns to elect state legislators, established advocacy organizations to lobby them, buttressed their allies and primaried those they disagree with, spending at least $100 million on political campaigns and causes over the past 20 years. “The DeVos family has been far more successful not having the governor’s seat than if they had won it,” says Richard Czuba, the owner of the Glengariff Group, a bipartisan polling firm in Michigan. “They have, to some degree, created a shadow state party. And it’s been pretty darn effective.”
The work of a business owner is all about personal connections. Consumers have a strong desire to support small, independently owned businesses and they know direct sellers can provide a high level of knowledgeable, personal service. Through the Amway network, consumers can access exclusive, high-quality products, which IBOs can sell on their own terms. As these direct selling teams grow and sell more products, IBOs make more money.
People are so quick to jump to conclusions about things they have no understanding or experience of. I love seeing all the positive feedback tho. With anything good in this world there will always be ignorant people (like the person who wrote this article) who will try and bad mouth things. I’m not here to pick a fight, but do your own research before trusting a single article like this.
Methodology: Source Euromonitor International Limited. Claim verification based on Euromonitor research and methodology for Amway Corporation conducted from May through June 2018. Euromonitor determined the highest possible total historical sales of the leading global and/or regional Amway competitors and eliminated those whose total sales are less than double that of Amway's own stated historical total bonuses paid out to distributors historically. Of the remaining companies, Euromonitor eliminated companies whose average share of bonuses and cash incentives paid out totals were less than 70% of Amway's stated historical total of bonuses. No companies remained after this stage. To the extent permissible, Euromonitor does not accept or assume responsibility to any third party in respect of this claim.
His tedious auto-encomium was enlivened only by occasional, chilling anecdotes of violence: His mother hit him as a child until, old and strong enough, he could credibly threaten to hit her back; his frat brothers, drunken and rambunctious, tried to shave his head one night, whereupon he barricaded himself in his room, audibly cocked a semiautomatic shotgun, and threatened to kill them; and his family needled him about Amway until, one Thanksgiving, he jumped up and shouted, “I don’t dump on what you do, and if you keep dumping on what I do, I’ll take you outside and knock your block off; and if you’re a woman, I don’t know what I’ll do!”
Last year, my friend’s roommate was caught up in the snares of Amway. It started innocently enough, but rapidly declined into a spiral of crazy we could not rescue her from, despite our efforts. In addition to purchasing binders of Amway sales strategies and tactics, this girl also had CDs she’d listen to while she slept, selling her on positive thoughts and Amway success. She even attended international Amway conferences, which cost thousands of dollars out of her own pocket and have yet to return anything.
Amway has one the world’s largest market shares for water treatment systems, which are widely purchased in Asian nations. For these products, the reliability of the products is critical. “In a direct sales business, an agent is selling their neighbors.” And for an Asian consumer, these are expensive products, from $600 to $1,000 dollars. “We don’t want our agents to have to explain why these products don’t work – so we do everything we can to make sure they keep working.”
In July 1996, Amway co-founder Richard DeVos was honored at a $3 million fundraiser for the Republican Party, and a week later, it was reported that Amway had tried to donate $1.3 million to pay for Republican "infomercials" and televising of the GOP convention on Pat Robertson's Family Channel, but backed off when Democrats criticized the donation as a ploy to avoid campaign-finance restrictions.
In Simply Rich, DeVos describes buying full-page advertisements for Reagan in popular magazines during his presidential runs because ‘we wanted the Amway distributors and their customers to know that we supported Reagan, in the hope that they would support him, too.’ Adding, ‘We also thought the ads might further help Amway distributors recognize the importance of free enterprise to their success.’ This is not the only time Amway has encouraged its sales force to back its political agenda. In 1994, Amway Crown Ambassador and motivational mogul Dexter Yager used Amway’s extensive voice mail system to raise almost half of Amway distributor and ‘strong conservative’ congresswoman Sue Myrick’s campaign funds when she ran for North Carolina’s ninth congressional district. The year Myrick was elected, Amway donated $1.3 million to the San Diego Convention and Visitors Bureau to pay for Republican ‘infomercials’ airing on televangelist Pat Robertson’s Family Channel during the party’s August convention.
Early in our conversation, I had mentioned that it was unusual for the chief supply chain officer to also be in charge of R&D. Dr. Calvert addressed this near the end of our interview, “I can’t imagine how difficult it would be to have procurement, manufacturing, the trade group, and R&D in different silos when it comes to developing and sourcing goods. The group I work with dictates everything about the product, how it is built, sourced, and where it is built.”
On December 18, 2012, the court ruled that film can be screened, but the makers have to remove "untrue information", as the screen near the end of the movie stated that 30% of company income is generated by sales of training materials and that the vast majority of its profits are shared only by the tiny fraction of top distributors. This is not the only court case, so the film is still banned on other grounds.
It started with a guy I randomly met at Target. Now that I think about it, it's almost as if he was waiting for a prospect right outside the store. He entered the store right behind me and then he entered the aisle I went into shortly after I did. Not that it's relevant, but I was there to buy deodorant because, well, we're not apes anymore. Anyway, he pretended to be interested in the same product that I was looking at and was like "Oh you're a Degree guy too?" I was a bit weirded out at first but I was like, I don't know, he seems harmless. We started talking about success right off the bat and how he wants to live the better life/easy life (yachts and fancy cars). He came off as very ambitious. I am too, I own a small business and I'm looking to grow it, so of course, I related to him, and that's where he thought he had me. That's right, it felt like he was out to get me.
Rallies begin with a ritual called “crossing the stage,” in which distributors who have attained a new bonus level go up to receive their commemorative pin and shake hands with a Diamond. From the crowd of about five hundred, two couples “crossed” at the 1,000 PV level (the lowest warranting a pin) and received a standing ovation from the audience. From the stage, the host then called out all the levels from 1,500 PV to 7,500 PV. Nobody emerged from the audience—which, nonetheless, remained on its feet applauding. The host kept cajoling, “C’mon, there’s plenty of room up here,” as if it were shyness that was keeping people away. It was the archetypal Amway moment: a crowd giving a standing ovation to nobody.
After a year in The Business, Josh and Jean were scarcely able to devote eight hours a week to distributing goods and showing The Plan—activities that required a good supply of prospects, customers, and downlines. They were desperate for new leads, also a scarce resource, and regularly alarmed me with proposals that we all go to some public place and mingle. Of course, that would have required overcoming shyness and other gag responses, impediments that Josh, Jean, and Sherri never really overcame (most of their leads seemed either to be family or, like me, coworkers.) They would, on the other hand, devote entire weekends to “recharging their batteries” at First and Second Looks, Seminars, Rallies, and Major Functions (Dream Night, Leadership Weekend, Family Reunion, Free Enterprise Day); meetings that required only insecurity and neediness, which all three had in spades.