Richard DeVos and Jay Van Andel who was based in Michigan founded Amway in 1959. Today Amway conducts its business through a number of companies in more than eighty countries worldwide. In 2012 Amway was rewarded the no. 25 position by Forbes for being one of the largest private companies in the U.S. By the year-end in 2012, more than $11 billion sales were recorded, making Amway one of the most successful network marketing companies that have been in business for well over 50 years.

You will find yourself being sold a whole life policy by a friend who has one or two "brokers" that they work for, and unspoken is that some of the commission goes to this person - it's structured just like amway, the commissions flow up the chain. There's even an old joke built into the movie groundhog-day. "ned the head! Needlenose ned!" People who know people like ned realize that ned was probably very near killing himself before the main character bought a bunch of insurance from him.
And the victims of MLMs—that is, the people who pay high buy-in fees but never recoup their investment—are usually women. The second episode of The Dream is called “Women’s Work,” and in it Marie returns to her hometown of Owosso, Michigan, where childhood friends and women in her family recall how Tupperware, makeup, and jewelry parties were an essential part of the town’s social fabric. “They say you can work from home, you can pick up your kids from school, you’ll never miss a soccer game,” Marie said of the promises MLMs make to women. “You can be the stereotypical mom, American mom, and make a living. Except that you can’t. You now have women doing all the emotional labor of mothering, and unpaid labor of running a household, and you have them working nights and weekends to pay for their cell phone. It’s like being in jail.”
It is rare to see poverty mentioned in Amway’s literature. When it is, it’s usually in the context of an Amway distributor having escaped it. Success is equated with wealth. With wealth is promised an enhanced way of life, one crafted of your own dreams – and Amway gives you The Plan to achieve that life. To let your attention stray from The Plan is to invite doubt and negative thinking, which can only result in failure. ‘As successful distributors tell people they are recruiting, the pursuit of excellence can be achieved only when they discipline themselves to tune in the positive dialogues and tune out the negative ones,’ says Cross. Poverty makes us feel bad. Feeling bad is negative. Negativity causes failure. It makes poverty feel contagious. So don’t think about it.
On campus, Betsy became politically active, volunteering for the presidential campaign of hometown hero President Gerald Ford, who was facing off against movie star-cum-California Governor Ronald Reagan. She joined a pro-Ford group called “Friends of the First Family,” and along with her compatriots, took trips to Indiana and Ohio to participate in the Ford campaign’s “scatter blitzes.”
The other way that you can quickly judge Amway is by the profile of their members. Many come from lower middle class religious backgrounds and have recently undergone personal issues (e.g. marital struggles) or boredom that cause them to look for some job that offers an easy way in and a holistic form of management. Many are unwilling to either put in the time that accompanies developing an actual profession (and will thus scoff at higher education) or put in the risk that accompanies creating one’s own business (and will thus scoff at how much the average person works per day.) They’ll often use trigger terms such as “early retirement,” “success,” and “freedom” without ever actually offering anything of substance of what Amway consists of. If anyone questions them – instead of taking time to explain how exactly Amway operates, they will point to a small group of people they know that got rich using Amway or point to all of the businesses that “partner” with Amway . Finally, some are often very protective and defensive of Amway online. You’ll see throughout the comments here (and countless others on blogs criticizing Amway) persons of such stature. You’ll also see that these persons, more often than not, use extremely poor grammar and punctuation, use profanity, and will almost never give an actual counter-argument of substance (but will rather point towards the businesses that partner with Amway, attack other businesses, or direct you to some site ran by Amway members.) Go ahead and see how many of the pro-Amway comments in this blog fit these traits – all of them.
It isn’t known what, if anything, the DeVoses said to Governor Snyder to change his mind and detonate this atomic bomb in Michigan politics. But Snyder would’ve been under no illusions about the possible consequences of inaction. “There was all kinds of scuttlebutt that if Snyder didn't sign up for right-to-work in 2012, he would’ve bought himself a primary in 2014,” says Demas of Inside Michigan Politics. “I think Snyder understands the powerful place the DeVoses have in Michigan, and that it’s often more trouble than it’s worth to tangle with them.”
Moving on, we exchanged info. I gave him my business card, he gave me his number. I thought cool, I just made a new friend who has the same mindset as I do, you know, work hard for the good life. He called me a couple of days later and we met at a small time franchise restaurant (his choice - part of the presentation). He brought his wife with him. They were both 22 years old. Not that it's weird, but I don't know. They both sounded like such nice people, I mean really nice. It's hard to take them or think that they are even out to commit anything that is considered bad. They gave me a book called "Business of the 21st Century" and I was to read it in four days, probably because in five days there was a meeting I was not yet aware of, and after reading the book we met again.

This year’s report examined how age, gender and education levels impact attitudes towards entrepreneurship. It also examined various aspects that either hinder or help entrepreneurs – internal factors (such as commitment, willingness to take risks, knowledge of how to earn money) and external factors (such as their country’s operating environment, technology availability and entrepreneurially forward education system).
I was seven when my parents joined Amway. Our house filled up with Amway products: boxes of Nutrilite™ vitamins, toaster pastries, Glister™ toothpaste, Artistry™ makeup. We washed our hair with Satinique shampoo; we washed our floors with L.O.C. ™ cleaner; we washed our dishes with Amway-brand dish soap; we strained our drinking water through Amway’s filter. Our friends were Amway. Our vocabulary was Amway. We were ‘Directs’ going ‘Diamond.’ We ‘showed The Plan’ to anyone who listened.
Visited the Norcross GA location and a few employees were complaining to the supervisor concerning harassment from another employee. The supervisor was defensive and unprofessional. Will not return because i saw the supervisor was being bias toward the black employees. This is not a place i would want to work. This was apparently a situation that happened at night so i believe the real daytime supervisors are unaware of his demeanor. Planning on contacting other agemcies to help my fellow race at that location. Will never return.
The company offered plenty of learning experience but is all about what you put in, to get out. Good for friends to get involved with and also families to work on the side of other full-time positions. Otherwise, it can become overbearing if you are not an "on your feet" thinker and planner. A very competitive environment with teams all over the US.
‘No,’ says Dale. ‘I’ve only been playing seriously for six or seven years, and I don’t have much time, working in hospitality. But I love playing at Bayou Club. You join a private club hoping that during season when every other golf course is swamped – I mean, we own a public course nearby, and they’re running on six-minute tee times. They’re herded through there like cattle. It’s tough during season, and it’s not enjoyable golf. Because if you’re playing golf, especially if you’re kind of a quick player, when you run into someone else and then you have to stop and you have to wait for those people to play ahead of you, to get out of the way, it interrupts your rhythm playing the game.’
It's not for nothing that you see 20% of the people in this world are leading 80%. Because 80% of people don't dare have a big dreams and overcome challenges. That's why they can live a great life, because they did something. So keep working for them and have an average salary and live your average life. Compare yourself to your boss. It's not for nothing that he is the only boss in his company leading 250 other people. It's just because he could vision himself bigger. Stay in the trap by yourself, who cares. It's your life. You can live it as awesome as you want or as miserable as you want. But there will still be dreamers out there who will lead you at the age of 65 when you can't retire because your retirement paycheck is too low. Because they will dare do something that you are not smart enough to take the risk to do. And enjoy your paycheck. They will enjoy their wonderful lifestyle. You will still have 15 vacation days to stay at home, they will take vacation whenever they want and travel all around the world. After all, if there was not people like you, your boss would not make any money. Wish you luck... I am an IBO and I LOVE AMWAY.
After the speech I told the guy that this isn't for me, I'm sure it works for you, but it wouldn't for me, and he tried to slow me down from walking out and managed to get one of his buddies to talk to me as to why I should reconsider. I asked him some questions, but he really didn't have a script and he got shot down and walked away. I said, "it was great meeting you, thanks for the opportunity, I hope I didn't waste your time and have a good life."
I work in the car business. Most people in the US can't reasonably afford the vehicles they drive. People are getting more and more upside down in cars. Terms are getting longer, down payments smaller, most trades have negative equity and inflation is increasing the cost of cars while wages aren't rising proportionately. I have money but I avoid paying bills or interest. I could pay cash for a lot of new cars today but I drive a 2000 year model family sedan I payed $1900 for. I have good ac, comfortable seats, it's reliable, I have aftermarket Bluetooth, it's all power etc, good stereo and a very low cost of ownership. I pay less than $40/month for insurance.New cars just aren't the best investment. New cars are rapidly depreciating status symbols. I'm well off but don't care to advertise it. If you have so much money that you can afford it go for it but the truth is that most people can't afford what they have. I'm not just talking about poor people with new Sentras or Rios but mostly middle class people. If they make $24,000 they buy a $20,000 car, if they make $48,000 they buy a $40,000 car and if they make $80,000 they buy two $50,000 vehicles.
To test these claims I took my new Amway wholesale price list down to the local supermarket for a price comparison. As it turned out, Amway wholesale prices were only slightly better than supermarket retail prices, although a few Amway products, like freezer bags, were significantly cheaper. And this was giving The Business the benefit of many doubts: I factored in its claim that its detergents are more “concentrated” than other brands; I compared Amway with high-quality brand-name products, not store brands or generics; and I compared only regular prices, ignoring the fact that the supermarket, unlike Amway, always has items on sale (not to mention coupons).[8] The same results obtained at the local drugstore in comparisons of vitamins and cosmetics. All in all, the 30 percent Basic Discount was nowhere to be found.[9]
Finding great Amway Center tickets is simple with our interactive Amway Center seating chart. If you already know the area you want to sit in, you can click directly on the chart and view pricing and availability. Keep in mind that the chart changes depending on the type event you're viewing. Also, we’ve got all of the specifics pertaining to club seats, suites, VIP, and other areas if you click the link near the venue name.
What I can say about Amway is this. It has been around since 1959, is the only debt-free private company who helps people to have the freedom they want in their lives. YES, ofcourse you have to work for it. If you don't, you don't deserve the benefits it has. God has put us on this earth for a purpose. I haven't found any better option for helping people get their dreams in life and help others to do the same. It's the uneducated and unsuccessful people who have tried to give Amway a bad reputation, but anybody with a brain and common sense know that it's is truly the best, bar none, opportunity to secure your future and others. If it wasn't, it wouldn't be around after all these years and growing in leaps and bounds. Also, this business is not just about the income and lifestyle you can reach. It's about he integrity and the family we have made and have the pleasure of being around.

People, please don't fall for this. It'll cause problems between you and your spouse if you're not both involved because of the conflict. It's a dream that is promised that will never come true. My wife spent money we didn't have investing in this crap and put us in a hole of debt with nothing to show for it. Did Amway come help her financially? No way. Avoid these companies, trust me, they're only out to get your money or get you to make them money.


When it comes down to it, Amway has been in business for more than half a century, and they pay according to their compensation plan. As such, despite their negative general reputation, they do not fit the traditional definition of a scam. However, if you’re thinking about becoming an Amway Independent Business Owner, there are several things you should keep in mind.
I have a question. My friend told me about Amway, I am eager to join but like as much as it’s about helping people achieve success, what about you? like, does it really make you money and the amount that actually satisfies you? If they telling me that i can retire soon, which i really do want to… how far do i have to go with it to reach that point? and at the same time not be a slave to this.

As its hands reached “midnight,” the Rolex dissolved into a series of video montages depicting the consumer Shangri-La that our own forthcoming Amway success would open for us. We leered as a day in the life of a typical jobholder—all alarm clocks, traffic jams, and dingy cubicles—was contrasted with that of an Amway distributor, who slept in and lounged the day away with his family. We gawked hungrily as real-life Amway millionaires strutted about sprawling estates (proudly referred to as “family compounds”) and explained that such opulence was ours for the asking. We chortled as a highway patrolman stopped an expensive sports car for speeding—only to ride away a moment later with an Amway sample kit strapped to his motorcycle. Our laughter became a roar of delight as the camera zoomed in on the sports car’s bumper sticker: “JOBLESS … AND RICH!”
Building network marketing teams that last is incredibly difficult in North America (specifically USA). This may sound a bit harsh, but I have not seen Amway break a single Diamond in the USA in 2 decades (it was brought to my attention recently that there was 1, but I have not verified this). The reason teams are difficult to keep together, even with the promoting of events, is because building a business entirely offline is not attractive to most people in this country. And as much as leaders may complain that the internet has ruined this industry in some circles, it doesn’t change the fact that the marketplace is an entity all of its own; it’s not up to us to determine what’s best for the marketplace, it’s our duty to find out how they want to be marketed to and then meet that desire. Building solely offline gets tiring and the vast majority of people simply don’t want to burn the rubber off the tires any more.  Now don't get me wrong, building a local team can be extremely powerful (I do it in fact), but if you are not leveraging the power of the internet then your method of marketing may not be attractive to most prospects. Additionally there are a lot of companies that have embraced the internet, and since most people go to the web for information it is easy for Amway reps to get discouraged and explore other options when they find out a business can be built online. Again, don't get me wrong, there's nothing wrong with the local offline approach, but it's best when combined with the internet.
[7]A “Direct Distributor” is one whose group does 7,500 PV or more in monthly sales (which is almost $25,000 a month in U.S. currency, a far more daunting figure which the artificial PV currency helps to disguise). Direct Distributors are entitled to order directly from Amway without going through their upline sponsor, as the lower ranks must do. Once you are a Direct Distributor, your group is no longer nested in your sponsor’s. From then on your sponsor gets only a straight 4 percent cut (the “Leadership Bonus”) of your group’s sales. You accrue more bonuses by lining up DDs under your direct sponsorship: six DDs make you a Diamond, twelve a Double Diamond, twenty a Crown Ambassador.
I have a question. My friend told me about Amway, I am eager to join but like as much as it’s about helping people achieve success, what about you? like, does it really make you money and the amount that actually satisfies you? If they telling me that i can retire soon, which i really do want to… how far do i have to go with it to reach that point? and at the same time not be a slave to this.

[11]At the top, the multi-multi’s seem to attain a Zen of conspicuous consumption. Brad Duncan, brother of the great Double Diamond Greg Duncan, described seeing a dusty Rolls Royce among the many cars in the garage of his upline mentor, Ron Puryear; when he asked what he paid for it, Ron answered, “I don’t know. Whatever the sticker price was.” Brad took him to task for this, until Ron lectured: “That dealership is somebody’s livelihood—somebody with a family. I’m not so hard up that I need to haggle the food out of a child’s mouth.” Brad was chastened, realizing that only small minds pay attention to sticker prices.


Amway is not a scam. The reason why people fail to be successful is because it is hard work just like any other business and not because it is a scam. Good people skills is a must for this kind of business and definitely, you need to be intelligent and clever in marketing your products just like in any other business. A lot of people fail in this business because they have little idea about money making skills or business skills. I have worked in corporate and I know the common thing among all the companies in the world is that they exaggerate about products, the lifestyle you will get and the money you will make. ALL companies do that. The only difference is that in Amway you are not sitting in a company building for your work. Rest depends on your selling skills. 
The Coaches Poll began selecting the "Top 20" teams on a weekly basis during the 1950-1951 college football and basketball seasons. For the 1990-1991 football and basketball seasons, the poll expanded to a "Top 25," and it has retained this format since. It was initially published by United Press – known from 1958 as United Press International (UPI) – from 1950 thru 1990, followed by USA Today/CNN from 1991 thru 1996, USA Today/ESPN from 1997 to 2004, and USA Today from 2005 to the present.
Indeed, the F.T.C.’s move against Vemma has caused both sides in the Herbalife battle to claim vindication. Although the F.T.C. has been investigating Herbalife for some 17 months, Timothy S. Ramey, a stock analyst and Herbalife bull, raised his price target for the company, saying Vemma’s business model was clearly different from Herbalife’s. Meanwhile, Ackman prepared a 29-slide deck with side-by-side comparisons of all the ways, in his view at least, Herbalife’s business model was exactly like Vemma’s.
In his memoir Simply Rich, Amway cofounder Rich DeVos tells the story of Amway’s origins. The country was in the last gasps of the Great Depression. Rich was fourteen. He was walking two miles through the snow to his high school each day, in his hometown of Grand Rapids, Michigan: wool collar popped high, galoshes squishing, wind in his face. Occasionally he would take the streetcar or city bus – but allowing time for the city bus meant having to rise long before the sun came up. ‘I needed more efficient transportation, and already being an enterprising type, I had an idea,’ he writes.
Robert Carroll, of the Skeptic's Dictionary, has described Amway as a "legal pyramid scheme", and has said that the quasi-religious devotion of its affiliates is used by the company to conceal poor performance rates by distributors.[107] Erik German's memoir My Father's Dream documents the real life failures of German's father as he is lured into "get-rich-quick" schemes such as Amway.[108]

My parents more or less broke even in Amway. They didn’t lose any money; they also didn’t make any. I learned recently that my mom was against it from the start. ‘She never wanted to do it, never warmed up to it,’ says my dad. She believed it was a cult, and wasn’t happy about giving their time and money to it. She hated Amway’s rightwing political propaganda and evangelical bullying. She hated that it kept the two of them from spending time with me. ‘She wasn’t going to leave me,’ my dad says. ‘But there was tension because she didn’t want to go do these things.’ Even as he admits he agreed with her on some level, he wanted to believe that The Business was viable.

Lol very funny, I have been wondering what I am doing for the past year, working my ass off for min wage, hurting my scoliosis back, cleaning, waiting tables and standing on my feet, while other people are sitting on their ass ggetting paid more (even if its telemarketing...same concept kinda...you people are making big boys more money so they pay you more) but I slave and get payed less....amway totally makes sense to me and I think this is a great opportunity I ran into...not many people in omaha ne know about it and im going to be part of the walking billboard..I work at ozark bbq a little bbq shack open for 30 years from word of mouth, basically and ive been around the business my whole life so i really just understand this. ..I want to use the products...why not..I get paid..I dont have to waste time or gas (money) going to store they are delivered to you..eco friendly, organic, and kinda compareable prices...if everyone just switched bathroom n laundry room they could make their self money..why not and I switch someone else, I make ,they switch someone, they make and I make...I like the pyramid. ..its the citizen pyramid instead of a govt...corp making all the money...why does this not make sense to some people....why not get a little bit of cash for buying a new I pad or just toilet paper lol ill take getting paid to wipe my ass any day thankyou lol I am doin it...you can see your potential before you ever pay a start up fee(I have not started up yet) and my sponsor makes over 500/month...your sponsor from my understanding sponsors time to help you they are investing their time bec if u make money they make money in turn you teach and sponsor others to make you money and they make more money I love it lol


This hard truth belies Amway’s populism, its promise that success depends merely on getting in on the ground floor, and that every floor is the ground floor. Deep down, Josh may have realized that an Amway easy enough for even him to master would soon self-destruct. This buried consciousness surfaced, for example, in the way he consoled himself with weird probability statistics. He knew how many levels deep he had to extend his downline (something like six) before he was certain to recruit someone with a knack for huckstering, providing a rising tide on which Josh could float. It was unlikely, of course, that a guy like Josh could spawn a six-level downline without the help of such a person, but that simply masked a deeper improbability: that there were enough of these theoretical master salesmen to go around to every schlub who couldn’t succeed otherwise.
As its Sales & Marketing Plan demonstrated, there were two ways to make money in Amway. You could buy products cheap (at wholesale costs reportedly 30 percent below retail) and sell them dear; or, more lucratively, you could share The Business with others, and build your own empire of “downlines.” Since Amway awards bonuses to its distributors based on their wholesale volume, and since each distributor’s wholesale figures includes the sales made by his or her “downlines,” each convert to the Amway cause would enlarge his or her own incomes. To see how this worked, we were told to imagine recruiting six distributors, each of whom would bring in four more, who in turn would each net an additional two. Our downlines, according to this “6-4-2” formula, would then have seventy-eight members. If each of our underlings did $100 a month in sales, we’d be making an extra $2,000 a month in bonuses.[5]
In his memoir Simply Rich, Amway cofounder Rich DeVos tells the story of Amway’s origins. The country was in the last gasps of the Great Depression. Rich was fourteen. He was walking two miles through the snow to his high school each day, in his hometown of Grand Rapids, Michigan: wool collar popped high, galoshes squishing, wind in his face. Occasionally he would take the streetcar or city bus – but allowing time for the city bus meant having to rise long before the sun came up. ‘I needed more efficient transportation, and already being an enterprising type, I had an idea,’ he writes.
Lmao i like how these amway fanboys are calling people that have real jobs broke lol 99% fail rate.. Dont use that excuse that people don't put in the work, I can put in 100% effort to sell dogshit, but I wont make anything cuz its still dogshit. You are ignoring the 99% fail rate and apparently ignoring the 100% success rate if you get a real job. I heard someone saying you aren't bound to the 9-5 chains in amway . As a Real business owner and many real business owners know that in owning a Real business u wish u had that 9-5 and thats it. Owning a real business is 24/7. So pull ur heads out of ur asses
In 2001, Betsy DeVos spoke at “The Gathering,” an annual meeting of some of America’s wealthiest Christians. There, she told her fellow believers about the animating force behind her education-reform campaigning, referencing the biblical battlefield where the Israelites fought the Philistines: “It goes back to what I mentioned, the concept of really being active in the Shephelah of our culture—to impact our culture in ways that are not the traditional funding-the-Christian-organization route, but that really may have greater Kingdom gain in the long run by changing the way we approach things—in this case, the system of education in the country.”
The next evening (Sunday because that's URA's phone session night) I received a call from the girl. I missed the call but immediately called her back thinking she was wanting to make dinner plans or something along those lines. She began talking about this cool business opportunity she has and felt like we would be perfect for it! The way she explained it made it sound legit. She said it was a company who endorses major brand products online, etc., etc. I was intrigued at first. They had us in the palm of their hands. When I hung up the phone, my husband immediately said "They're using us. This is some MLM scam." I believed him, but I had liked the couple so much I didn't want to lose their friendship, so we decided to just try it out. See if it's for us. 

The prospect is alarming enough that Charles Paul Conn, in Promises to Keep, works hard to prove it’ll never happen. “The reality,” he tells us, “is entirely different from what might be predicted by a statistician with a slide rule.” He points to the millions of likely untapped prospects—youths, retirees, downsized professionals, foreigners—although he fails to acknowledge that recruiting them would only make the Business hungrier. More plausibly, he adds that Amway is a small part of the population and will stay that way. The Business’s high dropout rate, he explains, though “often cited as a negative factor, actually serves to keep the pool of potential distributors large.” In other words, Amway’s salvation is its high rate of failure.
He tells us the club no longer has an initiation fee – they were forced to waive it six years ago in response to the economic downturn. ‘You have the top two or three clubs in the area – Bayou Club, Belleair Country Club, and probably Feather Sound – with no initiation fees to join,’ he says. ‘It makes it very easy to be part of a club these days.’
I did pick-ups for several depressing weeks. Apart from Sherri, I never saw any sign of another customer. It was like one of those dusty, deathly-still mom-and-pops frequented only by regulars who come mainly to chat—and I was oppressed with a similar sense that the proprietors needed my money more than I needed their merchandise. It was actually a relief when, one week, Josh and Jean left town without warning me.
The Club Level at the Amway Center -- between the Terrace and the Promenade -- splits into several types of premium seating. There are suites, including the Founders Suite which can accommodate 16 and the larger Presidents Suite, each providing a plush and roomy space from which to enjoy the game. Loge seats are among the most popular though, combining great additions like all-inclusive food and drink with a close-to-the-action feel. 

"The first part of the brainwashing," says Kyritsis, "was that 'there would be no success without the system.'" What's the system? The system is a series of seminars, recordings, and books that claim to be a guaranteed path to master salesmanship. Following Amway's guidelines successfully is seen as the only path to success, so if you aren't making money, it's because you're not "working the program" properly. Any success is due purely to their teachings, any failure is due to you not following them hard enough. Sound familiar?
The successful ones? You mean those that are already on the top of the pyramid? 99% of IBOs lose money. The average income is only around $150 a month, IF that, and I believe I'm overstating. I almost fell for this trap back in the early spring. Buying almost $300 of overpriced stuff just for $9 back...? I don't think so! That's not a profit or even savings. That's a complete loss
In 2004, Dateline NBC aired a report, alleging that some high-level Quixtar IBOs make most of their money from selling motivational materials rather than Quixtar products.[49] Quixtar published an official Quixtar Response website[50] where it showed '"Interviews Dateline Didn't Do"'. Quixtar also states on its response site that Dateline declined their request to link to the site.
Thanks to the DeVoses, Michigan’s charter schools enjoy a virtually unregulated existence. Thanks to them, too, the center of the American automotive industry and birthplace of the modern labor movement is now a right-to-work state. They’ve funded campaigns to elect state legislators, established advocacy organizations to lobby them, buttressed their allies and primaried those they disagree with, spending at least $100 million on political campaigns and causes over the past 20 years. “The DeVos family has been far more successful not having the governor’s seat than if they had won it,” says Richard Czuba, the owner of the Glengariff Group, a bipartisan polling firm in Michigan. “They have, to some degree, created a shadow state party. And it’s been pretty darn effective.”
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