There are some one and a quarter million Amway members in the United States, roughly one for every two hundred of the rest of us, all of them eager to spread the gospel of salvation-through-selling-Amway-products. Considering Amwayers’ penchant for compiling long lists of names, accosting strangers, and generally striving to collapse the degrees of separation between them and other humans, the chances of an American being asked to an Amway meeting are quite good—somewhere between having a condom break during sex and being dealt a straight in a hand of poker. For a certain segment of the struggling middle class, where there’s a magic mixture of disposable income and status insecurity, the odds are nearer those of catching a cold. And for someone like me, a post-collegiate pre-professional with a solid future in temping, Amway is more or less a mandatory rite of passage.
With its original product released in 1959, Amway has sought to be seen as the global leader in the health and beauty industries. Amway's fundamentals established by its founders are freedom, family, hope, and reward. The Michigan-based company believes its distributors will achieve happiness through earned success. Its product line includes weight management shakes, eye and lip care, household cleaners, laundry detergent, and more. Amway prides itself in being a family company with a global management team in place to support independent distributors. Amway hopes to help people start their own business with the promise of access to exclusive products, a low startup cost, and a 100 percent satisfaction guarantee. People interested in Amway's health and beauty products can choose to become an Amway independent business owner or be an Amway customer.

Studies of independent consumer watchdog agencies have shown that between 990 and 999 of 1000 participants in MLMs that use Amway-type pay plans in fact lose money.[115][116][citation needed] According to The Skeptic's Dictionary, "In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission requires Amway to label its products with the message that 54% of Amway recruits make nothing and the rest earn on average $65 a month."[117]

Besides earning money off your own sales, you also earn a percentage of the income generated by the distributors that you've brought into the program (these are known as your downline). Often there are bonuses for selling particular amounts of product or signing up a certain number of new members; you can earn cars and trips as well as cash. Sounds good, doesn't it? And being part of a well-run MLM business can be a lot like being a member of a large extended family.
Amway Center has an assortment of mid-level luxury seats and club seating, located below the upper bowl.[21] This contrasts Amway Arena's design as its luxury boxes are above all seats and suspended from the ceiling. The arena's design was unveiled at Amway Arena on December 10, 2007, with an official press release the next day.[22] The floor of Amway Center is designed with arena football in mind, as it features more retractable sections that will permit squared end zone corners, a feature previously not possible for Orlando Predators games.
if people are simply looking to become rich quickly by signing up as many people as they can, yeah, it can be a sh*t program to get into. but if people are actually looking to help each other out and create a supportive atmosphere, then its a good thing to be around. the things i’ve learned at the meetings and conferences have helped me immensely in all areas of my life because i’m way more confident now to pursue my own dreams outside of amway.
Indeed, the F.T.C.’s move against Vemma has caused both sides in the Herbalife battle to claim vindication. Although the F.T.C. has been investigating Herbalife for some 17 months, Timothy S. Ramey, a stock analyst and Herbalife bull, raised his price target for the company, saying Vemma’s business model was clearly different from Herbalife’s. Meanwhile, Ackman prepared a 29-slide deck with side-by-side comparisons of all the ways, in his view at least, Herbalife’s business model was exactly like Vemma’s.

We’re back in the central area. From an adjacent room comes the sound of a television and we make our way toward it. The room is ruby-carpeted with red-and-gray-striped wallpaper, three tapered wall lamps, and a giant projection screen angled downward. A man faces away from us in a floral upholstered recliner. He pauses the television when we come in.
And these inconveniences pale beside the emotional shock of entering Josh and Jean’s apartment. Not big to begin with, its thorough occupation by Amway Corporation made it positively claustrophobic. The living room was dominated by huge metal cabinets displaying Amway cleaning and food products; shelves along the wall were devoted to toiletries; boxes of cereal lined the top of the couch. Next to the window was an eraser board listing upcoming World Wide Dreambuilders meetings; free wall space and the outside of cabinets were decorated with motivational slogans (“I AM A WINNER!”) drawn in crayon.
There have been instances in the past where even auto-rickshaw drivers had sold their belongings (including their auto-rickshaw) and paid upto Rs 35,000 to become members of such scheme (GoldQuest). But as with any pyramid scheme, they had to bear the brunt of the binary tree’s exponential function and they became bankrupt. As expected, the organizers went absconding.
‘The gym used to be the men’s smoking lounge,’ Dale says to us. ‘This is a pretty young club, but already we’ve seen a lot of changes. It’s not all about the men saying, ‘I want to join a golf club.’ Now, with women having a much larger role in the family, they want to know, ‘Well, what’s in it for me?’ There’s got to be a fitness center, there’s got to be some activities for ladies and kids, and it has to be more of a family culture. A lot of traditional men’s golf clubs have had to really evolve into family clubs.’
In a breakfast speech to volunteers at Holland Christian Schools on May 12, 1975, Ed Prince warned that lazy and neglectful U.S. citizens were not doing their fair share, forcing the government to, as a Holland Sentinel article described it, “play an increasingly larger role in our daily and personal lives.” (You don’t have to listen too hard to hear an echo of Ed Prince in his daughter, Betsy. “[For welfare recipients] to sit and be handed money from the government because they think a job like that is beneath them,” the heiress sighed to the Detroit Free Press in 1992. “If I had to work on a line in a factory, I would do that before I would stand in line for a welfare check.”)
In 2001, after the majority of Amway Independent Business Owners (IBOs) had transferred to the new company, Quixtar completely replaced Amway as the marketing venture for Amway/Alticor products in North American regions. The Quixtar business model differs from the earlier Amway business model in many aspects, such as the way distribution is performed as well as the products and services offered through partner stores. Rather than ordering product from a distributor who delivers them in person, Quixtar customers can place orders online and have the products shipped to them directly. In mid-2007 however, Quixtar announced they were phasing back in the Amway name over two years and discarding the Quixtar name. Along with the re-branding campaign, Amway Global is investing over 580 million dollars into both increased compensation for IBOs and for extensive advertising of the new brand name.[12]

Amway has phenomenal products, with a low startup cost. You make excellent margins on products 20-40%. You get excellent business training and sales/product training with the Britt System. The atmosphere is always positive, negativity is not allowed. You build great relationships and friendships. It becomes a franchise environment with support from an entire team and business system. You can purchase products at a heavily discounted price. You can expand your business in over 80+ countries world wide.
Pyramid schemes have nothing to do with real commercial activity or product sales. Pyramid schemes are a form of financial fraud based on recruiting new people to make investments into a business, and then using those investments to pay the people who joined earlier. In Amway, distributors (Amway Business Owners) make money from the sale of our products – not from recruiting others to join.

People, please don't fall for this. It'll cause problems between you and your spouse if you're not both involved because of the conflict. It's a dream that is promised that will never come true. My wife spent money we didn't have investing in this crap and put us in a hole of debt with nothing to show for it. Did Amway come help her financially? No way. Avoid these companies, trust me, they're only out to get your money or get you to make them money.
I love this company. I love all the stories I hear how people succeeded in their lives. It is low cost to get in. It is only $ 50 yearly fee just to stay active. You are not abligated to buy every month if you dont' want to. this company has the best compansation plan especially when you grow in this business, you get increadible surprise reward checks and more.
In the last quarter of 2015, DeVos family donations accounted for over half of those made to the Michigan Republican Party. Dick DeVos, Rich’s oldest son, who served as president of the company before passing the torch to his younger brother Doug, made an unsuccessful run for Michigan governor in 2006. His wife, Betsy, has served as chair of the Michigan Republican Party and finance chair for the National Republican Senatorial Committee, and now chairs the board of directors of the American Federation for Children, a nonprofit which promotes giving students taxpayer-funded vouchers to attend private schools.

There are two ways you can quickly judge Amway. The first is by taking a community college Economics 101 class. MLM relies on obtaining wealth directly from those below you. You’ll hear a lot of Amway people making faulty comparisons to how other companies work – but the fact of the matter is that the growth of employees of, say, McDonalds is due to the outside demand of the wider public while the growth of “Members” of Amway is due to the internal need of Amway to become self-sustaining. There’s a reason why Amway focuses all its energy on its “networks” rather than the products it actually sells. It should be noted, however, that most of what Amway does is COMPLETELY LEGAL. It’s the equivalent of asking your friends to give you a quarter for every dollar they spend and then encourage them to make the same deal with their friends (with you taking an uptop percentage.) This is why Amway does indeed “partner” with large businesses…such large businesses realize the simplicity of Amway and are more than happy to take a portion of that profit! The issue, however, is whether there is an actual career in Amway – and the simple answer is not unless you either got in early or have lots and lots of family, friends, and poor souls you can get to agree to be below you in your “network.”
The Sales & Marketing Plan is based on what Scott called “the revolutionary business strategy of duplication.” To illustrate the idea he pointed to an imperfect example: McDonald’s, which succeeded so phenomenally, Scott explained, thanks to duplication—not because it served particularly good food (people who “hadn’t spent a lot of time around millionaires” always amused Scott with their idea that successful businesses required quality products). Ray Kroc had figured out a better way to flip a burger, but instead of hiring employees to do it, he taught it to franchisees, people fired up with the zeal of business ownership. While they willingly slaved to make what they owned more valuable, Kroc made his money by “taking a penny for teaching others how to make a dollar.” His was truly a magical income, expanding whether he worked for it or not, growing whether he lived or died. Long after Kroc had “taken a dirt bath,” Scott joked, duplication still supported his widow to the tune of $200 million a year!
I like most of Amway's products. Their cleaning products are really good. I have purchased many things from Amway. Many good products at a reasonable price. I have shopped with them for many years. In fact years ago when I was much younger I worked for Amway. Their sales persons are very nice and courteous and well mannered. Pleasant to do business with. Their representatives are of good character, always arrive on the appointed time and it is a pleasant sight to see them coming to my door to show what they have on sale.
Amway has become one of the most reliable options for me and my family. I buy there because they offer quality products and they are very durable, such as detergents and cleaning products. They offer good products and their customer service is very good, the person who sells me directly is very kind. Whenever I buy in Amway I do it with the distributor directly because the products are cheaper there, but from time to time I look for my reseller and I request products.
It is rare to see poverty mentioned in Amway’s literature. When it is, it’s usually in the context of an Amway distributor having escaped it. Success is equated with wealth. With wealth is promised an enhanced way of life, one crafted of your own dreams – and Amway gives you The Plan to achieve that life. To let your attention stray from The Plan is to invite doubt and negative thinking, which can only result in failure. ‘As successful distributors tell people they are recruiting, the pursuit of excellence can be achieved only when they discipline themselves to tune in the positive dialogues and tune out the negative ones,’ says Cross. Poverty makes us feel bad. Feeling bad is negative. Negativity causes failure. It makes poverty feel contagious. So don’t think about it.
There is a good possibility that this point would not have any impact on you, but for me it is a negative aspect. In the training, you will be taught to make a list of friends, family and acquaintances and yes, you guessed correctly – you will have to call them and get them to buy or join your business. I absolutely hate to drag my friends or family into buying something, they will buy, because they love me, but I don’t want to put them in that situation because that’s not what friends and family are for – I might be wrong, and this is merely my opinion.
Kyritsis got off easy. You can find stories online of people spending $192,000 to "make" $30,000 (shit, we think there are actual cults with a higher rate of return). It's impossible to know the exact "success" rate for Amway independent business owners (IBOs), but one case from 2008 showed that out of 33,000 IBOs, only 90 made enough money to cover the costs of their business. That's a failure rate of damn near 100%. But of course, to Amway, those aren't failures. Amway doesn't make its money selling the random household goods the distributors are handing out -- they make money selling a dream. Then once you've committed yourself and forked over serious cash -- and convinced friends and family to do the same -- how can you leave? At this point, you've got too much invested not to see it through.
On November 3, 2010, Amway announced that it had agreed to pay $56 million – $34 million in cash and $22 million in products – to settle a class action that had been filed in Federal District Court in California in 2007.[10] The class action, which had been brought against Quixtar and several of its top-level distributors, alleged fraud, racketeering, and that the defendants operated as an illegal pyramid scheme.
Their vertically integrated supply chain is one of longest in the industry. In addition to running plants, they own organic farms. They have farms in Brazil, Mexico, and the state of Washington where they grow and harvest key botanical ingredients like echinacea, spinach, alfalfa, watercress, and cherries.  They then take those products and manufacture intermediates.  Cherries, for example, are processed for Vitamin C. These intermediates they both use in their own products and sell to other companies.
@JonBrandusa @luv sweets Are you really hassling? Drop ship to house of products they already buy and are not being paid from? Small business owner vs. Consumer, hands down no contest, tax deductions make money off of products vs. just buying them and going back to your job again for more money? Being broke sure is fun! Apple knows more than all of us, reflecting on others your own insecurities is sad. Yes the challenge is issued and open. 
The company is said to have been violating the Prize Chits and Money Circulation Schemes (Banning) Act. More specifically, Pinckney and the two other directors were arrested in connection with a case filed by a certain Visalakshi of Kozhikode. She claimed to have incurred losses of Rs 3 lakh in trying to sell the products of Amway through its multi-level marketing network.
On the way out, we pass a frame on the wall bearing a quote by Robert Dedman Sr., founder of ClubCorp. My husband stops to read it: ‘‘A club is a haven of refuge and accord in a world torn by strife and discord. A club is a place where kindred spirits gather to have fun and make friends. A club is a place of courtesy, good breeding, and good manners. A club is a place expressly for camaraderie, merriment, goodwill, and good cheer. A club humbles the mighty, draws out the timid, and casts out the sorehead. A club is one of the noblest inventions of mankind.’’
"In fact, about twenty high level distributors are part of an exclusive club; one that those hundreds of thousands of other distributors don't get to join. For years only a privileged few, including Bill Britt, have run hugely profitable businesses selling all those books, tapes and seminars; things the rank and file distributors can't sell themselves but, are told over and over again, they need to buy in order to succeed."
I met with them the second time, and of course, they wouldn't tell me right there what the company was or what it did. I mean, why would they, they knew I would go online and read all the crappy reviews. They said "hey, tomorrow is this meeting, I don't know if we can get you in there but I'm gonna talk to my mentor and see if we can reserve you a seat," (yeah right, like that would be hard to do, but they have to make it seem like only a select few get in). The next morning he confirmed with me that he had pulled some strings and got me that seat and that he was going to introduce me to some people so told me to go early.

No one likes doing that. The major problem is that you trying to talk with people who have no interest in what you are offering. You need to learn how to implement an attraction marketing system to ATTRACT the right buyers and business opportunity seekers. These are people that are already currently looking for what you have to offer. So they are more targeted and more likely to join your team or buy products from you.


And the victims of MLMs—that is, the people who pay high buy-in fees but never recoup their investment—are usually women. The second episode of The Dream is called “Women’s Work,” and in it Marie returns to her hometown of Owosso, Michigan, where childhood friends and women in her family recall how Tupperware, makeup, and jewelry parties were an essential part of the town’s social fabric. “They say you can work from home, you can pick up your kids from school, you’ll never miss a soccer game,” Marie said of the promises MLMs make to women. “You can be the stereotypical mom, American mom, and make a living. Except that you can’t. You now have women doing all the emotional labor of mothering, and unpaid labor of running a household, and you have them working nights and weekends to pay for their cell phone. It’s like being in jail.”
When it came to designing the architecture required for its IoT platform, Amway used AWS Professional Services to help it create a continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipeline to automate delivery of platform software updates. The pipeline picks up source code changes from a repository, builds and packages the application, and then pushes the new update through a series of stages, running integration tests to ensure all features are intact and backward-compatible in each stage.
By the 30th level, the entire population of the earth will be in the system and the last 3 billion people who just entered the system into the 30th level have nobody else to refer. If each member is allowed to refer 6 friends, then the entire world population will be covered by the time it reaches 13th level itself (as illustrated in the chart below). Everybody they try to approach is already a member. The forerunners would have made huge amount of money by now and would go absconding, leading into a fraud. 

Their first product was called Frisk, a concentrated organic cleaner developed by a scientist in Ohio. DeVos and Van Andel bought the rights to manufacture and distribute Frisk, and later changed the name to LOC (Liquid Organic Cleaner).[19] They subsequently formed the Amway Sales Corporation to procure and inventory products and to handle sales and marketing plans, and the Amway Services Corporation to handle insurance and other benefits for distributors.[20] In 1960, they purchased a 50% share in Atco Manufacturing Company in Detroit, the original manufacturers of LOC, and changed its name to Amway Manufacturing Corporation.[21] In 1964, the Amway Sales Corporation, Amway Services Corporation, and Amway Manufacturing Corporation merged to form the Amway Corporation.[22]
Amway is a good company and has helped a lot of people worldwide already which should be because they existed since 1959(?). There’s just one thing I did not like and that was when some top distributors introduced their own training seminars and made it a part of Amway. Then some uplines made it compulsory to attend these meetings which are not free but on one hand you’ll get trained. Some distributors just gets hyper-excited acting queer instead of thinking business-like. It’s up to you how you’ll behave. Their products are mostly good. Surely, you’ll not earn if you don’t work it out. Of course, prospecting is part of it just like any other business. Then the business presentation, then closing the deal or have the prospect sign up. It doesn’t end there. You have to guide your distributors until they can made it on their own. Just like any distribution business, you have to check how your dealers are performing. Have a business mindset and hardworking attitude and you cannot avoid earning.
A 1998 analysis of campaign contributions conducted by Businessweek found that Amway, along with the founding families and some top distributors, had donated at least $7 million to GOP causes in the preceding decade.[76] Political candidates who received campaign funding from Amway in 1998 included Representatives Bill Redmond (R–N.M.), Heather Wilson (R–N.M.), and Jon Christensen (R–Neb).[74]
From the beginning, designers focused on creating a sustainable site; providing water efficiency; optimizing energy and atmosphere protection; conserving materials and resources; monitoring indoor environmental quality and health; and selecting environmentally preferred operations and maintenance. These elements combine to create one of the most environmentally friendly, high-performing professional arenas in the country.
I have been experiencing the Amway Opportunity and Teams for 2 years now... best thinks ever happen to me. The best advise I can give to people is don't trust me or any one on internet. The haters probably have their own and very specific reason to be mad at this company but experiment it for yourself and see if it is for you or not! I was so skeptical and I am so bless I didnt listen all the bad things said on this company their ethic and their partnership with N21 made it for me so far the most growing and exciting experience!!! You don't know me but I am someone that needs ethic, equity, respect of human being and every living creature... I found that in so many level through this company!!! Our over consumption and crazy society is (for me) so wrong, it put sens back into my life and I can create my own economy since I am involve in this MLM!!! I love that chance and opportunity. Thanks Amway and all my beautiful team mate I am associate with... So bless to have met you on my path and thanks for your love and support!!
Robert Carroll, of the Skeptic's Dictionary, has described Amway as a "legal pyramid scheme", and has said that the quasi-religious devotion of its affiliates is used by the company to conceal poor performance rates by distributors.[107] Erik German's memoir My Father's Dream documents the real life failures of German's father as he is lured into "get-rich-quick" schemes such as Amway.[108]
But Dream Night brought all the questions back to the surface: If Amway isn’t a scam, why did it seem so much like one? It may win heaps of praise nowadays, but Amway doesn’t seem to have changed much at all. Perhaps what’s changed is us. While Amway is the same as it ever was, the rest of us have made peace with commercial insanity. Maybe capitalism has finally reached the stage of self-parody, unblushingly celebrating a house-of-cards as its highest achievement. And maybe Dream Night, instead of being the ritual of a fringe cult, is the vanguard of the future.
Business owners receive education materials and free online training available 24/7 on mobile devices and in multiple languages. Educ and training topics include product information, how to sell them, how to earn income, how to grow a business, and how to be a leader. In addition, Amway offers business tools, including a personalized, mobile-friendly website, apps and customer service support (from real people, in six languages). Compared to the cost of starting almost any other kind of business, the cost to become an Amway IBO is minimal and low-risk.
If it’s not your family who brings you in, it’s probably a friend. For my dad, it was a manager at one of the car dealerships for which he handled advertising. The man’s business comprised almost half of my dad’s income. Over time, they’d developed a friendship. You’d think my dad would be immune to Amway, given his familiarity with advertising’s insidious ways. But how does the saying go? A good salesman can sell you your own grandmother.
One day, Sherri asked me to attend a meeting at which a “millionaire from the West Coast” was to talk about “business trends of the nineties.” I was not entirely caught by surprise—Sherri had dropped hints about starting her own “distribution business” at about the time that Amway Dish Drops appeared in the E2020 kitchen—and although she didn’t tell me the millionaire was from Amway, it wasn’t difficult to guess which version of the gospel of wealth he’d be preaching. I jumped at the chance to meet this mysterious man of money, although from totally insincere motives—the old anthro major in me was hankering for a bona fide subculture to gawk at.

Deep into his first term, Engler wanted to show progress in his signature proposal to reduce the state’s onerous property taxes by 20 percent. Property taxes being the funding source for Michigan’s public school system, Democrats ruled out any plan that did not include a replacement for the lost revenue, and since any new revenue would require legislators to vote for new taxes or fees, that option had little appeal heading into the 1994 campaign. On July 19, 1993, Democratic state Senator Debbie Stabenow proposed an amendment that was interpreted as an attempt to point out the absurdity of Engler’s plan: Why not cut them by 100 percent without having any replacement revenue source?
Betsy’s campaigning earned the attention of the Ford team, which tapped her to attend that year's Republican National Convention in Kansas City as a participant in the “Presidentials” program for young Republicans. The budding politicos attended training on campaign strategy and political techniques, and were divided into groups based on geography so that they could get acquainted with potential allies from their home states. There were also more practical desires for a squadron of young volunteers at a contested convention: “Anywhere there needed to be noise, there were always kids,” Betsy Prince told a reporter for the Holland Sentinel in 1976 (“Betsy Helps Cheer Ford Through in Kansas City,” read the headline, beside a photo of a T-shirt-clad Betsy sporting a feathered, Farrah Fawcett-lite hairdo).
‘You can see we’re getting the screens fixed,’ the Realtor says, pointing to the men working beyond the glass. She has piercing blue eyes. Processed blonde hair. She has French-tipped nails, diamond rings on all fingers, and a gold-and-diamond necklace. She wears a white semi sheer shirt, black-and-white-printed leisure pants, black eyeliner and heavy mascara. ‘We’re just putting some finishing touches on the place.’
Amway is a company involved in direct selling different kinds of products. It has been in business over 50 years and claims to have helped over 3 million Independent Business Owners (IBOs) to create a successful business of their own. The company operates in more than 100 countries of the world by offering a wide range of products, complete customer support, extensive training opportunities, etc. Amway is based out of Ada, MI, and has an A+ rating with the Better Business Bureau. There are only eleven closed complaints over the last several years. It seems that the company has a generally positive reputation among IBOs with the most common compliments referencing the high quality of the products, fast delivery and excellent customer service. There are few complaints the most common of which cited high prices, difficulty making money, and cunning recruiting tactics. Similar to Herbalife, this company deals with direct selling. It means that their business model involves individuals who earn commissions off each sale of their exclusive products. You can use Amway as a business owner (sell products) and as a customer (buy products).

The meeting was hosted by Sherri’s friend Josh and his wife Jean[3], he a commodities broker, she a high school math teacher. Sherri and Josh had attended the same small Christian college. Before that, he had been an Indiana farm boy, and he still had the look: a beefy, boyish face with a grin that verged on gaping, mussed hair with perpetually sweaty bangs, a brown suit that flared in all the wrong places, and a general air of guilelessness. This cast in high relief his constant, ill-advised attempts to put on city airs: the firm handshake, the breezy small talk, the man-of-the-world asides.

Oct 20, 2018; Clemson, SC, USA; Clemson Tigers safety Kyle Cote (32), linebacker Chad Smith (43), linebacker Shaq Smith (5), and safety Denzel Johnson (14) celebrate during the second half of the game against the North Carolina State Wolfpack at Clemson Memorial Stadium. Tigers won 41-7. Mandatory Credit: Joshua S. Kelly-USA TODAY Sports ORG XMIT: USATSI-382469 ORIG FILE ID: 20181020_pjc_ak7_603.JPG


Julie Matuzak, the DeVoses’ foe from the 2000 voucher fight, disagrees strongly with DeVos’ appointment but concedes the couple has good intentions. “I do believe they have a deep-seated belief in quality education for all children,” says Matuzak. “They see it as a continuum of public education that includes everything—private schools, parochial schools, charters, public schools. But they believe in the market force as the rule of the universe.”
Their vertically integrated supply chain is one of longest in the industry. In addition to running plants, they own organic farms. They have farms in Brazil, Mexico, and the state of Washington where they grow and harvest key botanical ingredients like echinacea, spinach, alfalfa, watercress, and cherries.  They then take those products and manufacture intermediates.  Cherries, for example, are processed for Vitamin C. These intermediates they both use in their own products and sell to other companies.
×